From Mystical Experiences To West Bank Atrocities

Categories: Israel and judaism

Introduction

Clearing my bookshelves from a mass of newspaper and magazine clippings, I came upon a paper I read once on the mystical teaching of Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook. Unlike most rabbis who rejected the secular Zionists aspiration to establish a state (believing that it should be built only by divine intervention) he believed that, just by settling in Palestine, [now Israel], the Zionist pioneers played a major religious role. According to him the universe had been advancing towards a higher level of consciousness and harmony, in some respects a vision similar to what the Jesuit Pierre Teilhard de Chardin called the Omega Point, only, in R’ Kook’s teaching, the Jewish people had a special role in this process. In his view and vision, the Zionist pioneers fulfilled a role similar to that of the workers who constructed the Holy of the Holiest in the Temple, to which only the High Priest was allowed to enter, or that of the donkey that is supposed to carry the Jewish Messiah.

After the 1967 war in which Israel conquered the West Bank, a messianic movement led by the students of R’ Kook and his son, Zvi Yehuda Kook, started settling the occupied territories, believing that the conquest signified the end to the long expectation for divine intervention. Together with the Army Rabbinate and other religious sects, they believed that they had not only the right to settle the land but also the duty to follow the example of Joshua, who, as described in the Bible, was instructed to annihilate all the previous inhabitants of Canaan.

Striving to establish a national home in which a new kind of society would produce an ideal “new Jew” the Zionist movement failed to find a definition for a “new Judaism.” For some strange reason, the state of Israel decided to adopt as Jewish the ghettoize definition of the Orthodox sect, building a chasm between Orthodox and secular Jews, with a potential for an extra isolation from world Judaism and Judaism at large. Especially so, as messianic movements, by their inherent nature, tend to reject and wipe out past and present structures and beliefs. With no exception, when people endeavor to play the presumed role of God they turn into fiends. The collateral effect of trying to follow the presumed divine dictate as “revealed” through the mouths of rabbis and yeshiva heads, has been leading to loosing the human face of the settlers and their backers in the government, army and the police. The fallen angel is bound to acquire the image of the Devil rather than that of God. A peculiar twist to the original teaching of Rabbi Abraham Kook as it is expressed in the volumes of Oroth Hakodesh [1] (the lights of the holy).

 

Marginal Annotations on Rabbi Kook’s Oroth Hakodesh

 

Abraham Isaac Kook (1865-1935), who in 1921 became the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of Palestine, was a leading Talmudic scholar, philosopher, and mystic. This paper is based upon his main mystical writings, which were collected and edited by his pupil and close friend, Rabbi David Cohen, under the title Orot HaKodesh (The Lights of the Holy). I call this paper marginal annotations on Orot HaKodesh firstly because a large part of its content was written in the margins of the pages of Orot HaKodesh while in the process of reading the book. Secondly, I use it in a sense similar to that implied in the saying that all philosophical works written since Plato are but annotations on the pages of his books. In choosing this title I admit therefore to the fact that my understanding of R’ Kook’s teaching may not be complete. His writing in Orot HaKodesh is suffused with mystical experiences, while I am, at best, a philosopher. This paper is therefore an effort to understand through a philosophical intuition, what was revealed to him and understood by him through mystical meditations.

Having used the term annotations I have also taken the liberty, not only of presenting his world view in my own words and through analogies adapted by me for this purpose, but also of integrating in the process many of my own ideas. I do so on good authority: that of R’ Kook himself, as according to him a text is only really understood if, in the process of reading it, we are able to add our own ideas to it.[i] If this text presents the main musical themes, my ideas should furnish some overtones.

R’ Kook describes his mystical experiences in Kabbalistic terms. In order to facilitate the understanding of his ideas to those who are not acquainted with these terms I have chosen to present them through a series of analogies. Even though these analogies are of my own creation they employ expressions like ‘the transparent mirror’ or ‘the picture of God’, which are most common in the Jewish religious tradition and are used in R’ Kook’s writing in a very similar sense. I believe that these analogies best preserve and represent the spirit of that which they are intended to depict.

Let us imagine that we are entering a very large hall. On the wall facing us hangs a huge picture. The picture is of gigantic dimensions, but as the place is very dark we can see neither the hall nor the picture nor anything else. We have brought with us a small flashlight, but its light is too dim to allow us to see what is in front of us. As we come close to the picture we can throw light only on very tiny spots, one at a time. In the dim light those spots are very blurred, and we have no way of knowing the subject of the picture – or even whether we are facing one or many pictures. Some of us will not even comprehend the fact that there is a picture in front of us. The place is dark and cold — as a matter of fact, frightening. We want out. As we look in the other direction we see a door. Outside there seems to be light and security and this is the direction we choose to follow.

Let us now suppose that on the wall at the end of the hall hangs not a picture but a large magic mirror. Any time a person points his flashlight toward it he sees reflected in it not his physical but his spiritual image. The mirror reflects everything that we know, feel, and desire. Like the portrait of Dorian Grey, it instantly represents the content of our whole life, and our image which is reflected in it changes form even while we are looking at it. As the mirror reflects our spiritual image and not the physical one, it is very difficult for us to comprehend the fact that we are staring at our own countenance. Only those few who know themselves so well that they can discern between their physical and their spiritual natures will be aware of that fact, as they will immediately be able to tell that the dark hall is in fact nothing else but their own mind. The rest of us cannot understand the nature of this phenomenon. Our first reaction is to turn to the door and run away.

Let us assume now that the picture we have mentioned before is positioned behind the magic mirror. The secret of the mirror is that when the spiritual image that we project onto it corresponds to a certain part of the picture that stands behind it, this part will project itself as a permanent image upon the face of the mirror, replacing, in the process, the reflection of our own form. This new image will remain there for us to worship, adore, and emulate. At this stage we are no longer afraid; enchanted and mesmerized by the perfection of the image elicited by our spiritual countenance, we lose interest in the world outside in whose light we are able to see only our physical bodies. Now we wish to stay forever.

Let us further assume that the picture behind the mirror emits a very strong electromagnetic field, and it is the attraction of this field that directs our light to that part of the transparent mirror corresponding to our image projected upon it. A needle in a compass will point itself in the direction of the North Pole only if it has a magnetic field of its own, which can be created if its electrons are aligned in the direction of the earth’s magnetic field. The process just described in our analogy is similar. For the attraction between our light and the mirror to occur we must have an electromagnetic field of our own, as only then can we be affected by the picture’s field.

In order to induce upon the mirror that part of the picture that we resemble, or, to put it in a different way, in order to allow that part of the picture to ‘recognize’ us, we must arrange our component parts in a way that will correspond to the form of the picture. The more we develop our own analogue of an “electromagnetic” field, the more we will be under the influence of this picture’s field and able to project a sufficient resemblance to bring to the fore the corresponding picture from behind the mirror. As the image that we project upon the mirror is that of our spiritual self and is composed of our thoughts, feelings and emotions, the waves that the picture’s ‘magnetic field’ projects into the human world seem to be composed of feelings of love compassion, justice, righteousness, and so forth. Only when we evince similar qualities in ourselves can we be in resonance with the recondite picture. Only then can we cause its permanent presence upon that side of the mirror that is facing us.

Let us carry this analogy one step further and assume that the sum total of all human beings spiritual forms corresponds to the single complete and recondite picture. This can be the case only if the sum total of our forms is a projection in a fragmented form of the original picture. In other words, the analogy makes sense only if we assume that we are emanations of God and that without His will and thought no shape or form could exist in the world as we know it. According to this school of thought God and mankind are interlocked symbiotically. To modify Bishop Berkeley’s principle, then, we may say that within the cosmic system of which we are a part, the one cannot exist without the other. No existence is conceivable, says Berkeley, which is not either conscious spirit or the ideas of which such spirit is conscious. In a similar way, we may say that forms transmitted by a divine mind could not be actualized unless perceived by another mind, and in order to discern a transmitted message, the receiving mind must be constructed in a way that will enable it to detect this particular message.

In the Jewish mystical tradition (the kabbalah), the same idea is expressed by the teaching that in its final and ideal form the world at large will be shaped in the image of God. The blue print for this image is furnished in the Torah (The Jewish Bible or the Old Testament), and therefore the picture of God can be conceived and adumbrated only through the inquisitive and discerning mind of Man who knows how to read the Torah in the right way.

In the worldview of the Kabbalah the process of creation started with the reduction of the One into the many and the history of the world which is bound by space and time consists of the efforts of the many parts to reconstruct the single original form. Accordingly, Creation is a process of delineation of boundaries. In a state of chaos all elements are mingled together but in the process of creation they become differentiated and each element is appropriated its proper place and image. The process of creation is therefore an ongoing process in which each element strives to reach and achieve its ideal image and final form. All the realized forms seen as one unit will represent a reflection of the face of God Himself in the way that He wished it to be presented in this world through his revelation in Sinai.

Using a sexual metaphor, a common device in the Kabbalah, we may say that the act of penetrating the hymen is preceded by the process of courting, with a play of love and with loving attention. Only after penetrating the outer barrier can we achieve the unity that will allow us to reach the source of creation and gain real knowledge. In the act of knowing we return to the point of the beginning: we reproduce our own image. The form contained in the seed strives to materialize, but it achieves this only if outside the seed, the shape of its future image urges it to come and to become.

The process of spiritual growth is also an act of overcoming and of breaking boundaries. In order to become a tree the seed has to break through its husk, making it defunct; the flower has to disintegrate to allow the fruit to emerge. The drive to grow, to become something which one is not, is initiated by the assumption that such a ‘something’ indeed exists somewhere beyond the boundaries which shape our present form. The movement toward this ‘something’ can be facilitated by a feeling of deficiency in ourselves or by an ‘induction’ or a ‘call’ from the complete picture of our ideal image wishing to become an actuality, or most likely, by both, as they represent two sides of the same thing.

Self realization thus occurs when we are able to ‘answer the call’, but not too many human beings can reach this stage of hearing the voice from beyond and daring to answer it. To do this one has to forsake the secure boundaries of the conventional, as the conventional world is the perfect refuge for the imperfect and incomplete personalities. It is a secure and a convenient world, as it allows us not to face the reality of the things as they really are. The conventional person will therefore turn away from the mirror which reflects his spiritual image.

What happens, then, when we do reach the limit of our understanding and self actualization, when we elicit the picture from behind the mirror towards the front? What is it that we discover when probing the limits of the final forms? If we assume that we, as well as the rest of the universe, are growing into preconceived forms, we have to assume as well the existence of a mind which conceived these forms. We refer here to the concept of the ‘wholly other’ reality (to use the term coined by Rudolf Otto),[ii] which transcends our reality but has a decisive impact upon its contents. In reaching the limits of our human cognition we may sense, guess, feel or encounter the numenous. We then become aware of the fact that life may have a purpose which is beyond our grasp, a purpose which stems from a different kind of reality of which ours may be only a sub-system. We may be able to figure out the underlying order of things in our material world, but if this world is but a sub-system then we have no way of determining the rationale of the larger system and the reason for its existence.

If we imply that our universe is but a sub-system we have to infer that there are different levels of understanding in the different systems. A complete understanding of our own system does not necessarily lead to an understanding of the wider system which may in itself be a sub-system to a larger one, and so on. Nevertheless, it seems that the perfection of each sub-system should allow for a better functioning of the larger body of which it is a part. We can become a part of this wider system only through our own one. Using the language of the Jewish Kabbalah we could say that by perfecting ourselves and our world we are also shaping and perfecting the image of ‘our god’1 which is an emanation, in the form of the Primordial Adam, of the higher God (Ein-Soph), of Whom we can know nothing.

Notwithstanding the limit set on our understanding, the mere knowledge that we are or may be but a part of a much larger structure leads to the assumption that our individual roles may have a meaning which is beyond our ken. By following our ”inner voice’ we may be following a rationale which extends beyond the recognized boundaries of our system, as the voice may echo the need and the will of a more complete and elaborate body. The mere fact that we cannot reach the ultimate knowledge accords us therefore with individual roles. By following the self acclaimed ‘all knowing’ conventional wisdom we betray therefore, both ourselves and our destiny.

The difference between our world and God’s is merely a difference in point of view. God conceives of it as one, we, as many. The intrinsic unity of the world is a reflection of the oneness of the divine image and plan. The world as we know it is but a creation of our own minds so, as long as we are unable to conceive of the whole of it, we are doomed to a defective and finite life in a fragmented and imperfect world. In this line of thought the question of how the one was fragmented into the many is meaningless. The one is always One; the fact that we see the many only testifies to our own shortcomings and deficiencies. What we see as fragmented is such, precisely because we see it, since we are able to perceive only divided and bounded objects.

The process of divine emanation is perceived, therefore, as a process of reduction whereby something is omitted at each declining stage. Revelation is understood, then, as a continuous process of reduction in which each lower stage reveals more parts but fewer component elements than the previous one. As we can recognize only that which we already know, the spiritual ascent to the next rung on the divine ladder or scheme of things is contingent upon our integrating those elements of the higher stage that are missing in us and in the world at the stage we are in. Our reality is the reality of the deficient, but as long as we are at a lower stage we believe it to be real precisely because it is deficient and therefore perceivable by us. But it is also the same deficiency, once we have become aware of it that drives us to look for the missing elements, to fulfill ourselves and, at the same time, to supplement the world according to its true nature and design. Ignorance, says R’ Kook, serves as our driving force Deficiency is the force that moves the world and leads it to a higher stage.[iii] In R’Kook’s teaching the whole universe is being driven by an all-embracing desire to reach perfection, to overcome its deficiencies and to become acquainted with the ultimate. The elation we experience while overcoming our ignorance is beyond expression. We are elated in the process of climbing the ladder of knowledge as well as when we look back upon the iridescent world beneath, glittering in the divine light and displaying the divine plan through its manifested harmony and coordination while we are marching toward the future, horizontally as well as vertically. R’Kook in describing his own experience, says that at this stage of understanding, our hearts are bursting with joy expressed through a song, and this song is joined by the songs of all other ascending souls, and that of all the higher souls and worlds. The song of the whole universe reverberates then in the hearts of the knowledgeable. [iv]

‘In my end is my beginning,’ says a modern poet.[v] In the teaching of the Kabbalah, the end form precedes our formless beginning: we are in the process of becoming what we already are, in potential. In the beginning God created, not half-grown trees, but the ideal form of all trees and all creatures. Each wave of light that shines upon us from above carries with it a certain amount of information which we are able to absorb only because of a predetermined congruity of structure. According to this teaching, the light that fills us in the process of formation and becoming is the same light that previously descended from above and left an imprint on us, an impression of the world from which it had descended. In order to be detected even by the greatest ignoramus, the light had to be fragmented into many pieces. Since our beginning is the end of this universal process of creation, our end is to reach the starting point of this same process in order to bring it to completion. As man was created last, the dispersion of the divine light reached in him the lowest stage.

Unlike all other creatures, man, who has been given free will has the choice of not growing, but if he does climb up he carries the whole world with him. As the last-born, the keeper of the garden, he is responsible for the state of the whole universe. According to R’ Kook, by restoring the unity implicit in his own soul, man also restores the cosmic unity.[vi] In his physical body, he integrates all the elements of nature, all that had been created before man came into being. Through his spiritual growth, man elevates all these elements to his spiritual level. The few righteous ones who are able to reach the point of the beginning integrate in their souls the sparks dwelling in all existing souls. Not many are able to reach the higher rungs of the divine ladder, but through their existence alone, the world at large rises to a more enlightened stage.[vii] The few righteous ones are to the people as Israel is to the nations: by its mere existence, having an innate urge to seek out the One and the oneness, Israel offers a blessing to the whole world.[viii]

God reveals Himself through speech. We discover Him through attentive listening. Through speech, God assigns boundaries to all things. By listening to His voice, we become aware of our own boundaries. The one who know himself answers when he is called by name, as he knows the name and recognizes the voice. When he, in turn, calls other creatures by name, they answer to his call as he knows their natures and their authentic names.[ix] We find our own definition by looking up at that which is above us and listening to the voice from above. Other creatures find their definition by paying heed to those of us who are aware of the divine order of things and are able to define their nature. By recognizing the nature of other creatures and calling them by their correct names, we elevate them to our own level of attentiveness. Together with us, they join the ongoing dialogue between all creatures and all worlds. God assigned to man the role of nomenclator (Gen. 2:19,20), and with this act the world started its cultural ascent. To fulfill this role, man has to know the nature of all things. ‘And I gave my heart to seek and search out by wisdom concerning all things that are done under heaven,’ says the wise man Kohelet; ‘this sore travail hath God given to the sons of man to be exercised therewith” (Ecc. 1:13).

In R’ Kook’s teaching, what separates us from God is the level of our consciousness. The light emanating from God becomes fragmented because of the nature of the vessels or the objects that absorb it. Having a limited capacity to understand anything fully we formulate imperfect vessels for the divine ideas. The first instant of disjunction occurred with the first sin of Adam. The fall of man had been the cause of division and divergence. At the stage before the first sin, before the eating of the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, everything was good as evil did not exist. This level of existence is symbolized by the tree of life, and also by the overcoming of evil and death: that is, we may return to this level.[x] Sin is an act of division, and leads to enfeeblement, and dissolution. Like evil, death exists only in the sundered world. Death, says R’ Kook, is an expression of a deformity in nature, caused by the forgetfulness of the image of the whole that followed the fall.[xi] Evil exists in discord and is reflected in disjoined parts, but within a whole there can be no discord and no evil.[xii] This idea is reminiscent of the famous lines by Alexander Pope in his ‘Essay on Man’:

All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee
All chance, Direction, which thou canst not see
All discord, Harmony, not understood;
All partial Evil, universal Good

What we call Death, says R’ Kook, is only an illusion created by sin, division and oblivion. In fact, death is actually an expression of a more vital, more sublime stage in the evolution of our consciousness a state teeming with the fullness of life.[xiii] The way to overcome death is to implement the perfection as conceived by God and revealed in His Torah. In verity, says R’ Kook, death is but a change of form, similar to the change that occurs in the seed when it germinates into a tree.[xiv] Progress constitutes, therefore, a growth unto death. By growing in this direction we become more perfect, more in the shape of our ideal image. Like a living organism, the world at large is evolving toward perfection, a process characterized by a surging pattern of ascent and descent, like the process of breathing in and out, or falling asleep and waking up, or waxing and waning of the moon.[xv] While on the downward movement, we acquire and develop the means that will enable us to reach a higher stage of evolution. We become more ethical, more compassionate, and through the study of the natural sciences get a better understanding of the world. [xvi]

Let us return for a moment to the metaphor introduced at the beginning of this paper – that of the magic mirror and the picture behind it. Let us assume now that behind the picture at the back of the mirror there is another picture, even more beautiful than the first one. As soon as we have brought the first picture toward the front of the mirror and turned ourselves into the same form, we step forward to start the same process anew with the second picture through another mirror. This process will go on forever and ever. The nature of the perfect, says R’ Kook, is thus that it can wax indefinitely, otherwise God would have to have a finite image and set boundaries[xvii]. It is the character of the perfect that it can become even more perfect. It has, in short an unlimited capacity for change. The Creator Himself becomes more perfect through the progress of the created, who, in turn, can break through the limitation of creaturehood and reach the perfect state of the Creator Himself.[xviii]

‘There is no new thing under the sun,’ says Kohelet (Ecc. 1:9). Indeed, says R’ Kook, nothing is new under the sun but the same is not true above the sun. In his progress, man rises from the place where nothing is new, to the place where nothing is old, to the place of perpetual novelty.[xix] The form of the whole universe changes with the ascent of man, which becomes a cosmic event. Each week, says R’ Kook, reaches its completion and its perfection in the Sabbath, and from this point a new week emerges, striving as well for completion and for a higher state of perfection. No two Sabbaths can be the same, as each one constitutes the essence of one more week, and is therefore nearer to perfection.

Only after reaching the stage of self realization can a person find his appropriate place in society. A society of such realized people would then have to attain its perfect social form in order to be able to integrate into the framework of humanity at large. A realized humanity could consequently integrate into the universe, and the universe will consequently integrate into ‘all the universes’ and then into universality and the light of the ultimate unity.[xx] At this stage, says R. Kook evil would phase itself out of existence since, as the illusion of separation, it has no place in the state of perfect unity. If we wish to be good to the evil entity, then we should help it reach the state of self destruction.[xxi] When all remnants of evil have been obliterated, the whole universe will rise from the level of the tree of knowledge of good and evil into the realm of the tree of life and ultimate good.[xxii] The ascent of man thus turns out to lead both God and cosmos into a more perfect state.

Where do we stand now in this cosmic process of spiritual ascent? Far ahead and very near to fulfillment, says R’ Kook, who interprets the events of the first three decades of this century as the signs of the advent of the messianic era. True to the apocalyptic tradition of Jewish messianism,[xxiii] he expects the old cultural traditions to decay as part of the transitional period.[xxiv] The sprouting seed may feel it is being destroyed by evil powers from within, the budding tree may feel endangered and insecure in its new environment, but the wise farmer knows that in order to produce fruit, the seed had to become a tree and that the tree will become part of the environment. Old forms have to be eradicated to permit the rise of new ones, and that, according to R’ Kook, is the reason for the temporary intensification of the destructive and devastating powers of evil in our world. That this demolition leads to the construction of a more unified and knowledgeable world is made clear to him by the fact that the natural sciences are becoming progressively more conscious of the unity of the world and the wonderful coordination between all its parts.[xxv] The schools of thought calling for social unity and, above all, the teaching of evolution testify to this fact.[xxvi] The teaching of evolution, says R’ Kook, is in accord with the teaching of the Jewish Kabbalah, and as the world gets nearer to an understanding of the Kabbalistic teaching, it becomes more spiritual.[xxvii] The trend for specialization in science is not a contradiction to it, as he feels that this trend allows each field to develop properly, leading eventually to a more perfect unity among them.[xxviii] All this is necessary to allow us to fill in the element of knowledge which is characteristic of the next stage of development but missing in our own. This element is the recognition of the divine elements in the human desire as well as the decisive role that it plays in the advancement of the whole universe.[xxix]

In this process of evolution, the people of Israel play a central role. As the Torah is the blueprint for the ideal world built in the image of God, and as Israel chose to become the embodiment of the Torah, it is animated by the holy spirit more than any other nation, and has a special talent for bringing forth righteous people.[xxx] Israel is destined to erect, here on earth, a social structure in the form of the heavenly city. The messianic order, therefore, will evolve through the Jewish nation.[xxxi] Only in the land of Israel can the Israeli nation achieve its destiny, and therefore the return of the Jews to the Holy Land signifies the imminence of the messianic age. Even the desertion of the traditional Jewish way of life testifies to this. For the seed has to disintegrate before giving rise to a new form; so also must the evil powers become stronger within Judaism, in order to break out of the old forms and traditions and bring about the messianic era.[xxxii] Even though the Zionists are not aware of it, says R’ Kook, their rebellion against religion is but a part of the same process of redemption, and by building the Israeli state, they are erecting the structure that will contain the higher and more sublime spirit.[xxxiii] Facing what many people consider the dissolution of Jewish values and the dissipation of Judaism itself, R’ Kook maintains a wonderful optimism stemming from the deep conviction that, precisely because of this state of affairs, the children of Israel will very soon reach the spiritual level of Moses and even of Adam before the first sin. Through them, evil will be obliterated, death will be overcome, and the whole universe will speedily reach the state of the Tree of Life.[xxxiv]

 

[1] published in SR, Studies in Religion, Vol.15, No.1, 1986

[i] Orot HaKodesh, Mossad Harav Kook, Jerusalem, Israel, 1978 (Hebrew), p. 73

[ii] Rufolf Otto, The Idea of the Holy, Oxford University Press, 1978, p. 27

[iii] Orot, p. 76

[iv] Orot, pp. 72, 484, 485. It is interesting to compare R’Kook’s description of the music of the spheres with an article by Guy Murchie on Matter Music published in Science Digest-January 1982 p. 74: “More fundamental is music’s penetration to the very heart of the atom in the resonance principle, the revelation of which seems more and more to be establishing the concept that the smallest and most indivisible particles of matter may now realistically be considered nodes of resonance, which, in a sense, are poetically interpretable as living notes. Some physicists are even hopeful that the dynamic school of physical research and the theoretical school will get together in a harmony they have never known, through acceptance of something called “exotic resonance” (because it transcends quark harmonies), which now seems the most promising clue to the meaning of complex symmetry of matter.”

[v] T.S. Eliot, in East Coker (the 2nd of the Four Quartets), Faber & Faber London, 1940, p. 7.

[vi] Orot, p. 359

[vii] Orot, pp. 84-88, 290

[viii] Orot, p. 285

[ix] Orot, pp. 117. 118, 301

[x] Orot, p. 493

[xi] Orot, p. 385

[xii] Rabbi Kook’s Letters, Mossad Harav Kook, Jerusalem, Israel, 1981 (Hebrew),Vol. 1 p. 321.

[xiii] Orot pp. 380-383

[xiv] Orot, p. 152

[xv] Orot, pp. 150, 521

[xvi] Orot,p.43

[xvii] Orot, p. 532

[xviii] Orot, p. 527

[xix] Orot, p.517

[xx] Orot, p. 447

[xxi] Orot, p. 491

[xxii] Orot, p. 453

[xxiii] See Gershom Scholem, The Messianic Idea in Judaism, N.Y. 1971

[xxiv] Orot, p. 152

[xxv] For a good example of such a trend (though not known to R. Kook), see: Lewis Thomas, The Lives of a Cell and The Medusa and the Snail. Also: Jacob Bronowski, who, in his Origins of Knowledge and Imagination (New Haven, 1979, 9.58), states: ‘I believe that the world is totally connected: that is to say, that there are no events anywhere in the universe which are not tied to every other event in the universe.’

[xxvi] Orot, pp. 539-542

[xxvii] Orot, pp. 6, 537

[xxviii] Orot, p. 566

[xxix] Orot, p. 565

[xxx] Orot, pp. 29, 300

[xxxi] Orot, p. 562

[xxxii] Orot, p. 152

[xxxiii] Letters, Vol. 1, pp. 143, 352

[xxxiv] Orot, pp. 298, 562 , Letters, Vol.1 p. 142

 

Author: Moshe Amon